When you take your dog to the veterinarian for a suspected ear infection, the doctor will perform an otoscopic exam, in which he or she will look deep into the ear canal with a magnifying glass. Intermediate values are considered a gray zone (Table 3-1). In: Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. It is not completed yet and it will be updated on a regular basis, therefore come back and keep looking. Once the sample is collected, roll the swab or curette onto a clean glass slide, evenly distributing a thin layer of material (Figure 3-1). Should my vet have documentation of the results of the ear cytology test they claim to have performed? Rough handling of delicate blood and skin cells might prevent us from identifying important factors in a dog or cat’s ear problem. Cytology involves examination of a tissue or fluid sample. Microorganisms can grow in stain solutions which can lead to artifact of bacterial overgrowth on slides. Precise breakpoints for maximum acceptable number of yeast vary from patient to patient. The high-oil magnification also permits detailed evaluation of the cytoplasm of neutrophils and macrophages for phagocytized bacteria—another important indicator of that particular organism’s acting as a pathogen rather than a commensal. West Sussex: Blackwell; 2008:162-172. To estimate the numbers, evaluate five to 10 areas, and record the average count per high-powered field (Figure 3-2). I am not an attorney, so I can’t speak from a legal viewpoint. Dogs with yeast-related ear infections often have dark brown or black debris in the ears. Make sure you have the following equipment: Cotton tipped applicator/swab, clean glass slides Diff-Quik stain, oil, cover slips, pencil, microscope. We hope this may be useful for those of you that are learning cytology … Cytology . TABLE 3-1 Recommended Breakpoints for Numbers of Organisms Identified Cytologically. To obtain consistent samples in awake or painful patients, veterinarians should aim for the junction of the vertical and horizontal canals, where the cartilage bends at a 75-degree angle. St. Louis: Elsevier EBook; 2005:41-75. Long ears fold and cover the ear canal, pre-venting air from entering and drying it. Insert needle (25 - 27 ga.) into the pustule holding the needle parallel to the skin so that only the pustule is punctured, no deeper cells or blood are required, top is lifted off and slide impressed onto the ruptured pustule . How Pet Owners May Recognize Ear Problems Early, Auburn University’s College of Veterinary Medicine. A study by Tater et al10 evaluated otic cytology from 50 normal dogs and 52 normal cats; it found a range of 0 to 2.6 yeast per high-dry field in dogs and 0 to 3.3 per high-dry field in cats. Cytology. Because the different species may have variable morphologic features and staining characteristics, veterinarians may notice unusually shaped yeast bodies on cytologic preparations. Another common finding on otic cytology is basophilic staining yeast, ranging in size from 2.0 μm × 4.0 μm up to 6.0 μm × 7.0 μm. Vaccine Information for Dogs, Cats, Puppies and Kittens. Unlike humans that have a very short ear canal, dogs have a long narrow ear canal that makes almost a 90 degree bend as it travels to the deeper parts of the ear. Archiving of otic cytology is not always necessary if a detailed description is written into the medical record. Just as “Coke” is a generic term for soft drinks and “Kleenex” has become a standardized term for tissues, Diff Quik is a term clinicians use to describe any brand of a combination of three staining materials that are variants of the Romanovsky type. Apr 8, 2017 - Explore Andrea McClure's board "Cytology" on Pinterest. If the doctor wants to look for ear mites, he or she can do that with the slide at that time. In several studies the temperature within the external ear canals of dogs measured between 38.2° to 38.4°C (100.7° to 101.1°F). Because cerumen is predominantly lipid, the sample does not take up much stain; on gross examination a stained slide from a normal ear should be nearly colorless. Many approaches to data collection have been utilised in the study of otitis externa. The presence of stenosis, inflammation, and voluminous exudate makes the exercise difficult and potentially dangerous if the patient moves suddenly or unpredictably. He ended up have infected anal glands which cost $33.50 to express and a shot of convenia antibiotics for $52.51. Long ears fold and cover the ear canal, pre-venting air from entering and drying it. The slide is then immersed into each color in the order listed above. Twitter. In our practice, we keep cytology results in the medical record. Appearance: Foot print, peanut, snowman In ears: black/brown Stain purple sweet smell Cause: Moisture, dark, warm. However, because the study included bacterial otitis, not all cases of otitis externa had yeast as a component; as a result, sensitivity was only 50% for dogs and 63% for cats. The cells may roll up on themselves during smear preparation, resulting in a deeper staining, shardlike appearance. Cerumen and ointment-based medications do not take up stain and are of little interest. In the external canal, cytology has been shown to be more sensitive than culture and sensitivity. Angus, JC. The result is a moist, warm ear canal that is the perfect environment for growing organisms. Cytologic samples should be collected gently from the horizontal canal. Dogs with long and hanging ears like Bloodhound or Basset Hound are more likely to be affected by ear infections. 6 Nestlé PURINA Interpretation of Canine and Feline Cytology tivity testing. Dogs with long pendulous ears are most commonly affected [2]. 9 Photos Female reproductive tract . Ear cytology is performed using a separate cotton-tipped swab for each ear. The frosted end allows patient identification as well as the "up" side of a microscope slide. Staining should reveal micro-organisms as perpetuating factors of otitis externa. Once in position, the swab is extended beyond the cone and pressure is applied laterally against the epithelium, collecting the exudates; the swab is then pulled back into the cone and removed from the canal. However, if you have lost confidence in this doctor, it might be time to seek another doctor’s advice. After examining several fields with the high-dry objective, switch to the high-magnification, oil-immersion lens (100× objective, 1000× magnification) for detailed evaluation. Of fixation and staining characteristics, veterinarians may notice unusually shaped yeast bodies on evidence. 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